The Petralona cave is located in Chalkidiki, 1 km away to the east of the eponymous village, about 35 km S-E of Thessaloniki and on the west side of Mount Katsika. Often designated as the "Petralona skull", Archanthropus europaeus petraloniensis, oldest European hominid, was found there.

The cave was accidentally discovered in 1959. Further research in the cave has yielded 4 isolated teeth, then two pre-human skeletons dated about 800,000 years, a great number of fossils of various species and what is considered as the oldest traces of fire known to this day.